14 Examples of Arguments

An argument is a reasoning that tries to prove or deny a statement. It serves to prove or refute hypotheses and convince the interlocutor that the position being defended is valid.

There are different types of arguments and each of them uses different resources to reach the conclusions. Inductive arguments, for example, start from particular statements to reach a general conclusion. While arguments from authority resort to statements made by an expert to support his central idea.

Arguments are part of everyday life. An advertisement, a presidential debate, an information brochure, a school exhibition or an informal conversation are examples of arguments in everyday life.

The following examples are classified according to the type of argument.

1. Inductive arguments

In inductive arguments, the premises share particular elements that are then generalized in the conclusion. For example:

If my nephew’s first word was “mama,” and my son’s first word was “mama,” chances are that every baby’s first word is “mama.”

2. Deductive arguments

They are a type of argument in which particular conclusions are provided from general premises. For example:

Latinos are happy, Venezuelans are happy. That means that the people of Caracas are happy.

3. Arguments from authority

It is an argument whose validity is supported by what is stated by a person or organization recognized in the field of discussion. For example:

According to data provided by the World Bank, the global economy contracted by 7% in 2020, due to the decrease in the Gross Domestic Product of more than 150 countries. That means the world entered a recession worse than the one it experienced after World War II.

4. Arguments from personal experience

They rely on the testimony of the person who argues. For that reason, their conclusions are subjective. An example would be:

The X cosmetics brand is of terrible quality, it gave me an allergy on my face. Surely all of their products are harmful to the skin.

5. Number or probabilistic arguments

They are a type of argument that use data or probability to draw conclusions. For example:

In Argentina, 21% of the population has a university degree. This means that less than a quarter of the population has completed higher education.

6. Arguments by exemplification

In this case, examples are used to support the argument. The more examples, the better argument is considered. For example:

The most industrialized countries are also the most polluting in the world. For example, China is the most industrialized country and emits 26% of greenhouse gases, the United States emits 13.1% and the countries of the European Union 9.2%. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that the more industrialized a country is, the more it pollutes the environment.

7. Arguments by analogy

This type of argument looks for common elements in order to establish relationships of similarity between the statements. For example:

My grandmother was very good at math, my mother is very good at math. That’s probably why I’m also good at math.

8. Cause-effect arguments

They establish relationships between two events to determine the causes and consequences of those relationships. For example:

If you eat too much, you will have an upset stomach.

9. Knowledge arguments

Also called general belief arguments, they are based on opinions or ideas held by a large number of people, so the argument is assumed to be correct or true because the majority supports it.

As most people know, it is impossible for life similar to ours to exist on other planets.

10. Arguments based on beliefs

These types of arguments are based on religious, ideological, political, moral beliefs, etc. who exposes his idea.

When someone who was a good person dies, they go to heaven to meet God.

11. Emotional-affective arguments

Its objective is to generate emotion in the interlocutor so that he leans in favor of the argument. It is a resource widely used in advertising and political campaigns.

When I come home and hear my children laugh, I realize that working hard for my family pays off. Wouldn’t you do the same to see your family happy?

12. Aesthetic arguments

In this case, the exposed idea is only supported by the beauty or aesthetic qualities that it possesses.

This car must be the best, because its design is beautiful

13. Quality arguments

They are based on the exposition of the positive qualities of the argued matter. The quality of the event, object or being in question becomes the only means of validating the argument.

Oolong tea is one of the best in the world. Its leaves go through a unique manufacturing process, in which they are rolled and unrolled about 40 times, by hand, to then make spheres that will open when the tea is prepared with hot water.

14. Fallacious arguments

They are arguments whose conclusions are false. Fallacious arguments can be the result of flawed reasoning, or they can be created on purpose for persuasive or manipulative purposes.

All poor people are lazy, that’s why they don’t improve their situation

See also:

  • Plot.
  • Types of arguments.
  • Argument from authority.
  • Argumentative text.
  • Examples of argumentative texts.
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