Biomolecules

What are biomolecules

biomolecules are essential substances that are part of living beingsand that fulfill a series of important functions for its proper biological functioning.

Biomolecules are formed from the six most abundant chemical elements in organisms, which are: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P) and the sulfur (S).

These elements are made up of biomolecules known as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins, which are essential for the formation and functioning of the cells that make up the tissues and organs of living beings. That is, biomolecules are essential for the existence of living beings.

Types of biomolecules

There are two types of biomolecules:

Inorganic biomolecules

Inorganic biomolecules are necessary for life, in general, and are found both in living organisms and in inert bodies. They are characterized by not having carbon bases.

Some examples are water, some types of gases such as oxygen, and inorganic salts such as bicarbonate.

organic biomolecules

They are characterized by having carbon bases and by being synthesized by living beings through various chemical reactions of metabolism. These biomolecules are grouped as follows:

  • Amino acids: They form the basis of proteins and participate in various biological processes. For example: glutamine, cysteine, among others.
  • Carbohydrates: also called carbohydrates, they are an important source of energy for living beings. For example, glucose, starch, cellulose, among others.
  • Lipids: They are responsible for various functions, among which the reserve of energy for the body stands out. They are divided into two groups, saponifiable (fatty acids, phospholipids, among others) and unsaponifiable (isoprenoids, steroids).
  • Proteins: participate in many biological processes. Some examples are: enzymes, hormones, antibodies, among others.
  • Nucleic acids: They provide biological information of vital importance for the functioning of organisms. For example: DNA and RNA.
  • Vitamins: They are responsible for physiological functioning. Some examples are: vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B complex, among others.
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It is worth mentioning that organic biomolecules can also contain other less usual elements called trace elements and necessary, but in small quantities, such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co).

See also DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Functions of biomolecules

The main functions of biomolecules are:

  • They make up the matter used by the cells that later form the tissues, organs and other structures necessary for the existence of living beings.
  • The deficiency of biomolecules generates health problems and diseases.
  • Release energy through carbohydrates.
  • They allow the construction of multiple links of elements.
  • They transport nutrients and other types of substances.
  • They control the proper functioning of living organisms.
  • They contain genetic information, thanks to nucleic acids, which will be inherited by each organism.

See also Molecule.