Golgi Apparatus

What is the Golgi apparatus?

The Golgi apparatus is known as a cell organelle whose function is to manage the proteins synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum to transform and export them to the rest of the organism.

Proteins, in their passage through the Golgi apparatus, carry out a modification process before being released.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus is especially developed in cells that have functions related to the secretion of substances, such as the cells of the nervous or endocrine system.

As such, the Golgi apparatus is one of the structures that make up the interior of cells, both animal organisms and plant organisms. However, its structure is more complex in animal cells.

Functions of the Golgi apparatus

the golgi apparatus its function is to modify, store and export synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum to different parts of the body.

Proteins enter the Golgi apparatus and are then transported along a series of cisterns in which enzymes act to modify them.

In this process, the proteins receive a fragment of carbohydrates or lipids, with which glycoproteins, glycolipids and lipoproteins are produced.

Subsequently, the proteins will be packaged in membranes to form two types of vesicles:

  • secretory vesicleswhich carry proteins outside the cell to be released.
  • storage vesicles or lysosomeswhere the proteins remain in the cytoplasm of the cell until they are exported.
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In this sense, the functioning of the Golgi apparatus is similar to that of a post office, which is responsible for receiving, classifying and distributing correspondence.

Structure of the Golgi apparatus

the golgi apparatus It is made up of a series of attached cisternswhich we can classify according to their position and function as follows:

cis cisterna

The cis cisterna is the one closest to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), from which it receives transitional vesicles containing the proteins to be transformed.

intermediate tanks

Intermediate cisternae are those found in the intermediate area of ​​the Golgi apparatus, between the cis and trans cisternae.

trans cistern

The trans cisterna is one that is directed to the plasma membrane and linked to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). It is from here that the transport vesicles leave to act in different places of the organism.

See also:

  • Endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Cytokinesis.