Grammatical Categories

Grammatical categories are the divisions that are established when classifying the words of a language, based on the function they perform.

Words perform different functions within a sentence. The functions can indicate the author of an action, the action itself, they can add, provide characteristics, determine the name, replace it, etc. Therefore, the criterion for including a word in one or another category is that function.

In total there are 9 grammatical categories:

  1. nouns or names
  2. adjectives
  3. Pronouns
  4. verbs
  5. adverbs
  6. prepositions
  7. conjunctions
  8. Articles
  9. interjections

nouns or names

Nouns are the words with which we name people, objects, things or ideas. In general, everything that has its own entity.

In a sentence the noun can be the subject, the one who performs the action or is affected by it.

There are different types of nouns: masculine, feminine or ambiguous, proper or common, concrete or abstract, singular or plural.


  • Some of the dancers less prepared they arrived before the function.
  • Is cake It’s delicious.
  • The goalie has grazed the ball with the fingers.
  • buy me a handbag red!
  • maybe me go up the ladder.


Adjectives are words that provide additional information about a noun. They rate it. In a sentence the adjective usually appears before or after the noun.

There are different types of adjectives: qualifiers, demonstratives, possessives, determiners, indefinite, numerals and demonyms.


  • Some of the dancers less prepared They got to the show earlier.
  • This cake is delicious.
  • The goalkeeper has grazed the ball new with the fingers.
  • buy me a bag red!
  • Maybe I’ll climb the ladder rear.
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Pronouns are words that replace the noun in a sentence. In this way a pronoun identifies any noun, also indicating its gender and number.

There are different types of pronouns: personal, reflexive, reciprocal, possessive, demonstrative, relative, numeral, quantitative, indefinite, enclitic, interrogative, and exclamatory.


  • Some, the less prepared, arrived before the function.
  • Is It’s delicious.
  • The has grazed the ball with the fingers.
  • Buy meit!
  • maybe the go up the ladder.


Verbs indicate the main action of a sentence. They can be active or passive and will always be in a certain way and time.

Verb moods indicate whether the action is real, hypothetical, or if the action is being called. These are three: indicative, subjunctive or imperative. The indicative is the most common and the most used in both written and spoken language.

In turn, the verb tenses are also three and indicate whether the action took place in the past, is taking place in the present or is about to take place in the future. These tenses are subdivided, in turn, into six different forms each of them.


  • Some of the less prepared dancers they arrived before the function.
  • this cake this delicious.
  • The goalkeeper has grazed the ball with your fingers.
  • ¡Buy me a red bag!
  • maybe i go up by the stairs.


Adverbs are words that complement the verb, providing relevant information for the action. They indicate circumstances of mode, time, space, quantity, etc.

In total, the different types of adverbs are: of manner, of time, of place, of quantity, of affirmation, of negation and of doubt.

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  • Some, the least prepared, came before to the function.
  • this cake forever It’s delicious.
  • He has grazed the ball slightly with the fingers.
  • doPerhaps will you buy me the red bag?
  • maybe go up all the boxes up the stairs.


Prepositions are words that indicate how other words are related to each other in a sentence. Usually the relationship between nouns, adjectives, verbs or adverbs.

Prepositions can be of place, cause, time, purpose, company, manner, instrument, deprivation or opposition.


  • Some, the least prepared, arrived before a the function.
  • With This cream cake is delicious.
  • the ball has collided against his fingers.
  • I have stayed without the red bag
  • Maybe I’ll upload all the boxes by stairs.


Conjunctions are words that join different elements of the sentence. There are two main types: coordinating or subordinating.

Within the coordinating sentences there are in turn three types: the copulative, the disjunctive and the adversative. While the subordinates can be consecutive, causal, final, concessive, temporary and conditional.


  • Some, the least prepared Y the most experienced, arrived before the function.
  • The cake is delicious but I liked last year’s better.
  • The ball has hit his fingers, though he wanted to dodge her.
  • I will buy the bag when may be possible.
  • I’ll carry the boxes up the ladder because they are very big.


Articles are words that precede the name, updating the information about it.

There are two main types of articles, the determinate or determining and indeterminate. In addition, the articles always distinguish the gender and the number of the noun to which they refer.


  • The less prepared dancers arrived before the function.
  • The cake is delicious, but I liked last year’s better.
  • A ball has hit his fingers, although the goalkeeper wanted to dodge it.
  • I’ll buy a bag when possible.
  • I will go up the boxes for the ladder because they are so big.
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Interjections are words that constitute a sentence in themselves and express a particular and vivid sensation or emotion on the part of the one who pronounces it. They are typical of exclamatory or interrogative sentences.

They are usually very short and it is believed that they come from older forms or longer words that ended up being shortened. Due to this peculiarity, many linguists do not include them within the category of word, but of linguistic sign.


  • Ole! But how good was the function…
  • Hey! We already have the cake.
  • Oh! The ball had to hurt his fingers.
  • Tall! I’ll buy the bag.
  • Hey? What was it you told me?