Meaning of Cognitive Paradigm

What is Cognitive Paradigm:

The cognitive paradigm is defined as a set of theoretical principles and research programs related to the functioning of the mind in general and the acquisition of knowledge in particular.

The cognitive paradigm emerges as a critique of the behavioral paradigm, considering the historical changes that the entry of information technology generated in the area of ​​communication and, as a consequence, in the knowledge process.

Also known as an integral part of cognitive science, the cognitive paradigm encompasses a set of theories that study the mental representation of learning processes and problem solving.

It is framed within rationalism taking into account reason as the source of all knowledge.

Cognitivism has been developed since the beginning of the 20th century and focuses mainly on education and meaningful learning. It is within the area of ​​cognitive sciences that is based on the functional analogy between the human mind and the forms of computer processing. The analogy is functional, but not structural, since it compares information processing systems of the same class by means of symbol processing.

This approach embraces linguistic, information theory, and computer science literacy as well as other postwar paradigms, such as the sociocultural paradigm.

In psychology, cognitivism, or also referred to as cognitive psychology, studies the complexity of higher learning processes in relation to concept formation and problem solving.

The cognitive system, whether animated or artificial, is made up of the following elements: receptors, the motor system, and cognitive processes.

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In this sense, cognitive processes interpret the information sent by receptors and guide the distribution of cognitive resources, such as action memory and experience memory.

Cognitive paradigm in psychology

The Swiss thinker Jean Piaget (1896-1980) introduced concepts of accommodation and assimilation of knowledge through internal motivations. In his psychogenetic theory, Piaget affirms that the genetic interpretation of the child is the only way to understand intelligence and its logical operations, delivering the notions of space-time, perception, constancy and geometric illusions.

In turn, Piaget defines in his cognitive paradigm four phases in the development of the construction of human knowledge from childhood to adulthood.

On the other hand, the American psychologist Jerome Bruner (1915-2016) introduces in his instructional theory that learning is based on the active processing of information according to its individual organization. He defines three mental models: activating, iconic, and symbolic.

The American psychologist David Ausubel (1918-2008) postulates in his theory of significant learning the concept of didactic teaching to achieve learning. He faces the concepts of meaningful learning and mechanical learning.

Significant learning uses pre-existing information in the individual to connect with each student’s own cognitive structure.

On the other hand, machine learning serves as a complementary or simultaneous way that incorporates new knowledge in a repetitive or rote way.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy that encompasses the principles and techniques of learning theory. Emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes in the development, maintenance, and modification of behavior. This type of therapy teaches the subject to face his difficulties in order to have greater control of his life.

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Cognitive paradigm in education

In educational psychology or educational psychology, the cognitive paradigm evaluates the cognitive competence that the student possesses to learn and solve problems.

For the definition of the student’s cognitive competence, in order to create the most appropriate strategy for learning and problem solving, the following points must be evaluated:

  • Basic learning processes: processes of attention, perception, encoding, memory and information retrieval.
  • knowledge base: abilities, skills, concepts, previous knowledge.
  • Cognitive styles and attributions: ways to learn.
  • Strategic knowledge: General and specific strategies learned.
  • Metacognitive knowledge: knowledge through experiences and personal cognitive processes.

Types of teaching of the cognitive paradigm

Psychologist David Ausubel defines two types of learning:

1. Repetitive or rote learning (surface or mechanical processing), as an initial or reinforcing phase

2. Meaningful learning (deep processing), as the way in which new information is incorporated in a substantial way.

In turn, Ausbel defines basic dimensions of teaching strategies or teaching methodology to incorporate new information into the cognitive structure already present in students.

reception learning

Reception learning uses machine learning to relate to learning large volumes of new information in a finished way, such as learning country names and multiplication tables.

Learning by discovery

Discovery learning incorporates the principle of assimilation, defined as the process in which new information or material is linked to the existing information structure.

Discovery learning is considered significant learning that is important to incorporate in the initial phases of learning. The contents are related to the concepts and principles to learn, for example, procedures, attitudes, norms and values.

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See also:

  • Paradigm
  • Sociocultural paradigm.
  • Cognitivism.
  • Piaget’s stages of development.
  • Cognitive
  • Cognitive.
  • Learning.