Meaning of Deductive Method

What is Deductive Method:

The deductive method is a reasoning strategy used to draw logical conclusions from a set of premises or principles.

In this sense, it is a thought process that goes from the general (laws or principles) to the particular (phenomena or concrete facts).

According to the deductive method, the conclusion is found within the premises referred to or, put another way, the conclusion is a consequence of these.

For example,

  • premise 1: All men are mortal;
  • premise 2: Aristotle is a man.
  • conclusion: Consequently, Aristotle is mortal.

In general, when the deductive method is applied, if the premises are true, the conclusion will be effectively valid.

There are two forms of deductive method:

  • direct deductive methodthe one in which the judgment is produced from a single premise, without it being contrasted with others.
  • indirect deductive method, the one in which the first premise contains the universal proposition, and the second one of a particular character. The conclusion, consequently, will be the result of the comparison between the two.

Axiomatic-deductive method

The deductive axiomatic method is made up of a set of premises or axioms from which, through the application of a series of deductive procedures, other statements called theorems can be extracted.

Hypothetico-deductive method

The hypothetical-deductive method supposes the observation of a phenomenon and the consequent formulation of hypotheses that explain it, to then proceed to the verification of said hypothesis. It is the method that is generally followed in scientific research.

See also Scientific Investigation.

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Deductive method and inductive method

The deductive method is the opposite of the inductive method, because while the deductive method seeks to go from the general to the particular, the inductive method proceeds in the opposite way: from particular premises it seeks to reach general conclusions. In it, it is based on the observation, recording and analysis of the information to, based on it, formulate general premises.

See also Inductive method.