Meaning of Experiment

What is Experiment:

experiment is the process by which one or more independent variables are intentionally manipulateddefined as causes, for the subsequent analysis of the consequences that they have on other variables identified as effects.

The word experiment derives from the Latin verb I experienced which means to experiment or test. It is made up of the prefix ex– indicating a “separation from the inside”, from the root peri– indicating an attempt or risk and finally the suffix –mentumof experimentum indicating the action and effect of experimenting.

In research methodology, a discipline that systematizes the techniques that must be followed in the process of scientific research, scientific or chemical experiments, for example, are characterized by the following points:

  • There is intentional manipulation of one or more independent variables determined to be causes
  • There is a greater probability of replicating the experience, anywhere and following the same procedure.
  • The results show the true magnitude of the effects.

See also:

In statistics, a deterministic experiment is a pure experiment, that is, with manipulation of identified and intentional variables, which lead to a known or certain result respecting the initial conditions.

Home experiments are those whose construction is easy and are designed to improve learning retention in children, such as the volcano experiment that consists of mixing ingredients (baking soda and vinegar) to cause a chemical reaction that simulate the eruption of a volcano.

Types of experiments

The experiments are classified according to the manipulation of the kind of experimental group that will be used and the degree of control over the variables for the measurement and obtaining of the effects or results. With this in mind, we can classify experiments into 3 types according to Campbell and Stanley (1966):

  • pre-experiment: use of experimental groups chosen at discretion from a larger group and with no or almost no control.
  • quasi-experiment: use of historical groups, that is, those identified based on existing, real or historical groups and with a relative presence of control.
  • Pure experiment or random experiment: use of randomized experimental groups from a larger group and with control presence.
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See also Random.