Meaning of Genetics

What is Genetics:

genetics is the science of heredity. The word genetics comes from the Greek genes what does it mean race, birth or origin and the suffix ikos that expresses relative to”, consequently, the union of both terms manifests that which is relative to the birth or race of a being.

The study of genetics allows us to understand what happens in the cell cycle and how biological characteristics are transferred between humans (genotype), physical characteristics (phenotype) and even his own personality, for example, “the great similarity between the parents and their descendants”. In reference to the above, the cellular cycle It is the process by which the cell grows and divides into two daughter cells.

The transfer of the characteristics of a being is developed through genes, composed of dna (Dexoribonucleic Acid) which is a molecule that encodes genetic data in cells, saves and transmits from generation to generation all the information necessary for the progress of all biological functions of an organism.

Likewise, DNA has the ability to replicate through a semi-conservatory mechanism by synthesizing new strands of DNA using an existing strand as a template.

See also:

  • dna
  • gene
  • Genetic code.

The first studies in genetics were carried out by the Catholic Augustinian monk Gregor Johann Mendel. Mendel was the one who defined Mendel’s laws through a study that he carried out through different types of peas or peas, obtaining as results dominant characters that are characterized by determining the effect of a gene and recessive ones that do not have a genetic effect on a heterozygous phenotype.

genetic psychology is a genetic theory pioneered by jean piagetwhich consists of the study of the development or psychic changes products of the different stages through which the child goes through to become an adult through structural, clinical and psychogenetic methods.

You may be interested:  Meaning of Specific Heat

Likewise, the term genetics is related to the beginning or origin of thingsfor example: “the genetic process of man”.

The ethical standardization of genetic manipulation is discussed and promoted by the interdisciplinary field of bioethics.

See also Bioethics.

Genetic diseases

Genetic diseases are caused by alterations of the genetic material or genome. The genetic disease can be hereditary or not, in the first case the altered gene must be present in the gametes and, in the second case, if the altered gene only affects somatic cells, it will not be inherited.

Five types of genetic diseases can be distinguished:

  1. dominant genetic disease a single copy of the affected gene is enough,
  2. recessive genetic disease two copies of the affected gene are needed
  3. sex linked disease In this case, it is transmitted through the sex chromosomes.
  4. monogenic disease the alteration of a single gene is required and, the
  5. polygenic disease alteration of various genes is required.

The possible causes of genetic diseases They are: mutations, chromosome trisomy, environmental factors, among others. There are various genetic diseases such as: Down syndrome, color blindness, Turner syndrome, among others.

Molecular Genetic

molecular genetics studies the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, that is, it examines how DNA is composed and duplicated, through the methods of genetics and molecular biology.

See also Molecular Biology.

quantitative genetics

quantitative genetics studies the effects that genes cause on a phenotype. They receive this name because they can be measured in individuals such as: weight, height, among others. Quantitative characters are called polygenetic characters.

You may be interested:  Meaning of Relativity

The continuous and normal variation of quantitative genetics is determined by 2 causes:

  • Simultaneous segregation of many pairs of geneseach gene pair makes a contribution to the determination of the character.
  • The action or effect of the environment it modifies the phenotype, for example, the weight of an adult is genetically determined, but it can be altered due to the food they eat on a daily basis.

mendelian genetics

mendelian genetics studies chromosomes and genes and how they are inherited from generation to generation. Mendel’s laws are a group of rules on the transmission by inheritance of the characteristics of organisms, it is composed of 3 laws:

  • Law of the uniformity of hybrids of the first filial generation which indicates if 2 pure breeds are crossed for a certain character, the descendants of the first generation will be equal to each other and equal in phenotype to one of the parents;
  • Law of segregation of characters in the second filial generation each allele of a pair is separated from the other member to determine the genetic makeup of the daughter gamete;
  • Law of independent inheritance of characters Mendel deduced by means of the previous law, that different inherited traits are independent of each other, therefore, the inheritance pattern of one trait will not affect the inheritance pattern of another.

See also Mendel’s Laws.

Population’s genetics

population genetics studies the genetic makeup of individuals that make up populations and the transmission of genes from one generation to the next. A genetic population is the sum of the allele frequencies of all the genes in a population.

If the allele frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next, this is known as the Hardy–Weinberg law. In relation to the allusive, to maintain genetic balance, the following conditions must be met: the population must be large and the matings random, there must be no selection and gene flow, that is, there must be no emigrations and immigrations and, there should be no mutations.

You may be interested:  Numbers