Meaning of Phonology

What is Phonology:

It is known as phonology to Linguistic science that studies the sound of the voice.

Specifically, it is a science that deals with phonemes in relation to the role they play in a language. The phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in the phonological system of a language.

Sounds that fulfill a differentiating function are considered phonemes. Phonemes are represented between two slashes: //. In Spanish there are 24 phonemes: 5 vowels and 19 consonants.

There are two criteria for vowel phonemes: the place of articulation and the mode of articulation. By place of articulation, vowel phonemes are classified into front vowels “/i/, /e/”, central vowels “/a/” and back vowels “/o/, /u/”. According to the mode of articulation, vowel phonemes are classified into closed vowels “/i/, /u/”, mid vowels “/e/, /o/” and open vowels /a/”.

Consonant phonemes are classified taking into account the action of the soft palate (oral and nasal), the action of the vocal cords (voiced and unvoiced), the mode of articulation (stops, fricatives, affricates), and the place of articulation ( bilabial, labiodental, dental, interdental, alveolar, palatal and velar).

The phoneme, sound model is represented in writing by letters. There is no exact correspondence between phonemes and letters, since different letters can represent a minimum phoneme. Due to these mismatches, the number of phonemes and the number of letters is very similar but not identical.

In relation to the above, it is called minimal pairs to those words that mean different things but only differ in one sound. For example: the phoneme is what allows us to distinguish the words “step and case”, just by exchanging the phoneme /p/ for the phoneme /k/.

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In 1886, the International Phonetic Association created an International Phonetic Alphabet, in which they represented graphic symbols that allow describing the pronunciation of any human language.

etymologicallythe word phonology is of Greek origin “phones” meaning “sound”; “logos” which expresses “study”, and the suffix “-ia” which is synonymous with “quality or action”.

See also What is a Phoneme?

diachronic phonology

Diachronic phonology studies the functional and structural changes and substitutions of the phonic elements of a language throughout history.

This branch of phonology was postulated at the linguists congress in The Hague, in 1928, by Jakobson, Karcervsky and Trubetzkoy.

Synchronous phonology

Synchronous phonology is responsible for investigating the phonological system of a language at a given time.

generative phonology

The function of generative phonology is to represent the phonemics of the morphemes of the language, and to propose a set of rules that identify the phonetic form of a language.

phonology and phonetics

Phonetics and phonology are two related sciences, the first deals with the study of sounds in speech, and the second studies sounds at the level of language.