We explain what politics is, how it originated and the types that exist. Also, what are its general characteristics and what is it for?

Politics
Politics deals with public affairs that concern the social, cultural and economic.

What is politics?

Politics can be defined as the art and doctrine of the forms of government of the States, that is, of decision-making, carried out by its administrative or leadership instances, or by direct participation of those represented. It is also synonymous with political science: the scientific discipline that studies the forms and dynamics of government.

Politics usually refers to the job of leading the State or the struggle for control of it, by the stakeholders, that is, by the sectors that wish to exert their influence on the decisions made regarding the common good. Said political actors can be political parties, unions, civil associations or groups of citizens.

Politics deals with public affairs, in what concerns the social, cultural and economic. It also refers to what concerns the relationship between States, or the very conception of their leadership.

See also: Plutocracy

Etymology of “politics”

the political word It comes from the Latin politicus and this in turn from the Greek politicoslinked to the word politikē: “referring to citizens”. In ancient Greece it was called cops to the city, and by extension to the whole of society, that is, to the citizenry.

That’s why the art of managing the social was called politiké techné: the art of living in society. When the philosopher Aristotle affirmed that the human being is a zón politikonwanted to say that the human being is a “social animal”, that is, a “political animal”.

Policy Origin

Bible - Politics
In principle, religions could implement governance mechanisms.

Politics has its origin in that of human society itself, since the human being, being a social animal, sought from the beginning the company of others of his species and formed more and more complex societies. This was not possible without some kind of organization.

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In this way, the families, the individuals and the groups that they formed by uniting, were able to make decisions more efficiently. In addition, they reached a hierarchy that did not necessarily go through the submission to the brute force of the leader.

In fact, mutual aid and cooperation, driven by our capacity for articulate language, allowed much more complex forms of understanding. Furthermore, it was possible to distinguish between those who were part of the clan or tribe, and those who were not, between which actions could be done freely and which were not, and between which forms of leadership are acceptable and which are not.

9,000 years ago the first cities arose and in them the first sedentary societies. Forced by their way of life to live together, they had to devise some kind of code of conduct that would facilitate social peace. In principle, religions played an important role in leading the masses, allowing the implantation of ethical and moral codes and governance mechanisms.

many centuries later The same thing happened with the kings, who assumed positions on the throne by divine right. However, after the Bourgeois Revolutions and the rise of modernity, new social classes emerged and with them new ways of understanding society. They rescued concepts from Antiquity such as the Republic and Democracy.

policy definition

The definition of politics has varied over time. And each one of his thinkers has proposed their own definition, tailored to their way of understanding it.

In Greco-Roman antiquity, for example, Plato thought of it as the fruit of the observation of reality and the proof of various social changes, which had to be carried out by the wisest members of society. This is what he proposes in his Republic. His disciple, Aristotle, preferred a scientific approach to politics, which took different aspects of society into consideration.

Nicholas Machiavelli, in the fifteenth century, preferred to think of it in much more practical terms: the constant struggle for power. Something similar to what Carl Schmitt would do later in the 19th century, who considered it as the friend-enemy dialectic, finding its maximum possible expression in war.

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For its part, in the “Game Theory” proposed by TD Lewellen (1985), politics is defined as the set of “the processes involved in the determination and realization of public objectives and in the differentiated obtaining and use of power by the members of the group involved in those objectives”.

Policy Types

Politics - money
Economic policy refers to the management of money.

There is no universal division of the entire field of politics, but it is generally understood based on two different aspects:

  • Economic policy. Economic policy refers to the management of money, that is, decision-making regarding the investment, distribution, distribution and management of public funds, State funds. One can also speak of an economic policy in the case of other types of institutions, such as companies or organizations.
  • social policy. Social policy is often thought of as the opposite face of economics, since it deals with aspects of investment of resources in terms of human development, maintenance of institutions, aid to the needy and all the processes that have to do with supporting the quality of life of citizens.

Usually, investing in social policy requires good economic policy, since if a nation plunges into misery, it will be more difficult to sustain aid to the destitute or public education. In the same way, good economic management without social policy will lead to inequalities and contradictions that will generate discomfort and a desire for change.

What are politics for?

politics - protest
The fight for rights and demonstrations are also part of politics.

politics is an extremely important dimension of humanityalthough widely criticized. It is often heard that politics is “dirty”, since in the exercise of political work it is often easy to be a victim of dark interests, giving rise to corruption and other illegal behaviors, which disguise personal benefit as public administration. .

Nevertheless, politics is in everything and permeates all areas of human knowledge. The administration of the State is part of politics, but also the fight for the rights of minorities or the forms of popular organization.

In sum, whenever you want to evaluate, rethink or alter the rules of the game With the fact that something is done in society, or seeks to solve the current ills of societies, a positive use of politics is being made.

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What is political culture?

It is so called set of knowledge, attitudes and evaluations that a specific population manifests before the political life and the political system of their nation. This includes political ideals, the political norms of a government and other aspects that are historically constructed. They respond to the idiosyncrasy and policy considerations that characterize that group.

What are public policies?

Politics - public administration
Public policies seek to satisfy social needs.

Public policies are known as the projects and activities that are designed and executed from a State, as part of the activities carried out by the government. They are part of the public administration and are generally aimed at meeting the needs of society, through regulatory measures, budgetary priorities, public spending, etc.

political systems

political systems are ordered sets of theories, methodologies, and principles that are put into practice jointly when governing a society. These systems encompass considerations of a social, economic, electoral nature, etc. and they can be implemented more or less strictly, more or less radically.

Some of them are capitalism, socialism, communism, dictatorshipdirect and indirect democracy, feudalism, etc.

Political parties

political party
Candidacies for public office emerge from political parties.

The political parties They are citizen groups that aspire to exercise political power. of the societies. They represent a sector of society within the instances of political administration, even from the exercise of opposition or criticism.

Candidacies for public office generally emerge from them.. They have a spokesperson who speaks on behalf of the model of thought common to all those who make up the party.

Political Sciences

Political science are the set of scientific and social disciplines that are in charge of the study of power. They are generally taught as a unified course, under the name of Political Science or Political Science. In Western universities, 5 years are usually devoted to studying for a degree in that subject.

References:

  • “Politics” on Wikipedia.
  • “Political History” on Wikipedia.
  • “Politics – Political Science” (video) in Educatina.
  • “Origin of politics in the world” in Banrepcultural.
  • “Politics” at Encyclopedia.com
  • “Political science” in The Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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