Porfiriato

What is the porfiriato

The Porfiriato was a period of the political history of Mexico during which General Porfirio Díaz ruled the countrybetween 1876 and 1911.

In these years a relative economic and material progress was achieved, and the country was pacified, although at the cost of great repression, inequality and social injustice.

Porfirio Díaz was a soldier of great prestige within the military forces and a good part of Mexican political circles. He had a prominent participation during the Reform War and a leading role in the French Intervention.

Díaz reached the presidency of Mexico thanks to a military rebellion and the triumph of the Tuxtepec Plan. He came to power on November 28, 1876, and ruled, with just a four-year break between 1880 and 1884, until May 25, 1911, thirty years in all.

Characteristics of the Porfiriato

The Porfiriato is a period that was characterized, in the economicfor bringing material progress and foreign capital to Mexico, as well as for investment in the field of mining and agriculture, for promoting national industry and for connecting the country with railway and telegraph lines.

politicallywas a period of relative stability, since the pacification of the country was achieved (the so-called porfirian peace), thanks to the use of force, persecution and repression of any form of social discontent, thus assuming the characteristics of a dictatorship.

All of the above, in turn, translated, on the social levelin great tensions within Mexican society, especially between the Porfirista oligarchy (landowners, foreigners, industrialists), which emerged in the shadow of the general, and holder of political and economic power, and the working masses, the peasantry and the indigenous, particularly mistreated and exploited during the regime.

You may be interested:  What is an Empire

End of the Porfiriato and Mexican Revolution

The Porfiriato came to an end in 1911, as a consequence of the weakening of its political and military power and the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution.

In 1910, Díaz, eighty years old, still aspired to a new re-election for the presidency of the country. However, the candidacy of Francisco I. Madero under the slogan “effective suffrage, not re-election” stood in his way and Madero was sent to prison by the dictator.

Meanwhile, Madero manages to escape from prison and proclaims the plan of San Luis, which, among other things, did not recognize Díaz as president of the nation and called for a rebellion on November 20, 1910, the day that is currently celebrated. like the Day of the Mexican Revolution.

For their part, Pancho Villa, in the north, and Emiliano Zapata, from the south, joined Madero and dealt Diaz significant military defeats.

So Díaz, militarily and politically weakened, finally decides to resign from the presidency and leaves Mexico in May 1911. In this way, the conclusion of the Porfiriato coincides with the social movement that would come to radically alter the political, social and economic structures of the country. Also known as the Mexican Revolution.

See also Mexican Revolution Day.