what is a republic

The Republic it’s a organizational system of the state where the exercise of government falls on one or more people, elected by popular or parliamentary vote, for limited periods of time, to represent the interests of citizens. The word comes from the Latin res publicawhich means ‘the public thing’, ‘what is common’.

the republican system was born as an alternative expression to the type monarchical, where all power is exercised by one person, usually the king, in an indefinite and hereditary manner. However, there are currently regimes of parliamentary monarchiesas is the case in Spain, where the king essentially fulfills a representative role as Head of State, but the rest of the government positions are popularly elected and have a limited term.

In modernity, the republican model outlines more clearly the profile with which we know it today, with the separation of the executive powers, legislative Y judicialwhich seeks a balance that ensures the stability of the State, freedom, Justice Y equality. To a large extent, she fed on the ideals of the Illustrationenunciated mainly by Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke.

See also Modernity.

The first modern republics in latin america arise during this period. The Spanish colonies In the 19th century, a series of wars began whose objective was to disassociate themselves from the Spanish crown to establish new republican systems. This is how Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Panama and Bolivia were born.

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See also Colony and Emancipation.

Federal Republic

The Federal Republicalso called Federal state, federative Or simply, federationis a system of organization of the State made up of social, territorial and political entities, also known as states, cantons, regions or provinces, which are associate and subordinate under a scheme of federal government and enjoy a certain level of autonomy regarding their government and legislation. Federal systems generally have two levels of government, one federal and the other local, which coordinate and complement each other in terms of their attributions, faculties and functions. All this is expressed in the legal framework of a common constitutional text, which includes the legal principles of the states that make up the federation.

Examples of federal republics abound in the world. In Latin America we found the cases of Mexicoconformed as a federation of 31 states and a federal district; Argentina, with 23 provinces and one autonomous city; either Brazilmade up of 26 states and a federal district.

centralist republic

It is called centralist republic to the system of organization of the State where governmental action emanates and is conducted from the nucleus of central power, usually located in the capital of the country. It is a model diametrically opposed to the federal one because all the entities that constitute the State respond to a central authority, to which they are located. politically and administratively subordinate.

Plato’s Republic

The Republic is a work of philosophy where is content Plato’s political thought. Divided into 10 parts, it is written in the form of dialogues that are chaired and conducted by Socrates. There Plato lists five forms of government: aristocracy, democracy, oligarchy, timocracy (government of those who have a certain income), and tyranny or monarchy. Plato’s main object with this treatise is, broadly speaking, to inquire into the nature of the State as an entity subordinate to the morality and justiceprinciples that, reflected in the behavior of individuals, lead to the ideal of a perfect and happy society, which is why the formulation of a Utopia.

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