Seasons of the Year

What are the seasons of the year?

The seasons of the year are the four periods, of three months each, in which certain climatic conditions remain more or less stable. The four seasons are called spring, summer, fall and winter.

The seasons of the year are due to the inclination of the Earth’s axis and the translation movement that the Earth makes around the Sun, which is why the sun’s rays fall with different intensity on the various regions of the planet.

Seasons of the year

The seasonal changes seen in a tree: spring, summer, fall and winter.

For example, in the equator area, the sun’s rays fall perpendicularly and heat up more. Places where the sun’s rays fall at an angle are colder, as is the case at the North Pole and South Pole.

For this reason, in the equator and the tropics, only two seasons can be noticed, which are dry and rainy.

However, when the axis of the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun, it receives more sun and heat, while the South Pole receives less sunlight and is colder.

Seasonal variations do not occur equally at both poles. Consequently, while in the northern hemisphere we experience spring and summer and the days are longer and hotter, in the southern hemisphere we experience autumn and winter, and the days are shorter and colder.


Spring begins between March 20 and 21 in the northern hemisphere, and between September 22 and 24 in the southern hemisphere. It is a transition period between winter and summer.

The spring is characterized by the fact that:

  • the days begin to be longer than the nights,
  • temperatures are warmer than during winter,
  • plants begin to bloom
  • many of the offspring of various animals come to light.
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See also: Spring.


Summer begins between June 21 and 22 in the northern hemisphere, and in the southern hemisphere between December 21 and 22.

It is the vacation period for students and many families. It is generally the season of parties and celebrations. In the southern hemisphere, summer coincides with the Christmas festivities.

Between the summer features we can stand out:

  • High temperatures
  • Longer days and shorter nights.

See also: Summer.


Autumn begins in the northern hemisphere between September 23 and 24, and in the southern hemisphere it begins between March 20 and 21. It is the time of transition between summer and winter.

The following autumn features are typical of this station:

  • The temperatures begin to drop.
  • The days are cooler, rainy and very windy.
  • The leaves of the trees, which begin to fall, take on an orange and reddish color.

See also: Autumn.


Winter begins in the northern hemisphere between December 21 and 22, and in the southern hemisphere it begins from June 21 and 22. In the northern hemisphere, Christmas Eve and New Year’s Eve are celebrated, making this season a time of celebration.

The winter is characterized to have:

  • Short days and longer nights.
  • lower temperatures
  • Snowfall may occur.

See also: Winter.

solstices and equinoxes

The four seasons of the year are determined by the position of the Earth’s orbit with respect to the Sun, which is why we speak of the summer and winter solstice, and the spring and autumn equinox, as the moments in which it occurs. the change from one season to another.

During the solstice, the Sun is farthest from the equator. This fact usually happens between June 21 and 22, in which the day is longer than the night. On the contrary, on the winter solstice, between December 21 and 22, the day is the shortest of the year and the night is the longest.

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In the equinox, the poles are the same distance from the Sun and the days and nights are the same length. The spring equinox occurs between March 20 and 21, and the autumn equinox between September 22 and 23.

You may also be interested in:

  • Solstice
  • Equinox