Sociology

what is sociology

The sociology It is a social science whose object of study is social relations. that occur within a specific human population.

In this sense, sociology is responsible for studying, analyzing and describing the structure, organization and functioning of societies, as well as the behaviors, trends, phenomena and problems that are verified at the collective level as a consequence of social activities.

To do this, sociology uses different research methods. On the one hand, the qualitative method, focused on the description and interpretation of the phenomena, and, on the other, the quantitative method, more focused on the statistical representation of the social phenomena studied.

Sociology, moreover, is an interdisciplinary science, which uses different theories, methods and techniques for the analysis and interpretation of the causes and effects of social phenomena.

In the history of this discipline, Henri de Saint-Simon is considered the father of sociology.since he was the first to propose the scientific investigation and theorization of social phenomena.

Other important authors will be August Comte, Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber or Herbert Spencer, thinkers and intellectuals who in the 19th century had already begun to reflect on society as an object of study from a scientific point of view.

The origin of the word sociologymeanwhile, is in the work of Augusto Comte, who from the Latin word socĭus, which means ‘partner’, and the Greek term λóγος (lógos), which means ‘treaty’, ‘study’ or ‘science’ , creates the neologism sociology, in his work Course of positive philosophy, published between 1830 and 1842.

Today, sociology is also a college career in which you opt for a bachelor’s degree in sociology.

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Branches of sociology

Sociology of Education

The sociology of education refers to the study, description and interpretation of the phenomena and the educational reality of a specific society.

To do this, the sociology of education uses concepts, models and theories (both from sociology and psychology, pedagogy or anthropology) applied to the field of education and the educational phenomenon as a social process.

Legal sociology, or sociology of law, is the sociological study of the elements of law and its relationship with a specific society.

In this sense, the object of study of legal sociology comes to be the phenomena and the social reality and the influence that these have on the law or that are determined by it.

Urban and rural sociology

Urban sociology and rural sociology have in common the object of study of the set of relationships and social phenomena that occur in specific environments, such as the countryside and the city.

In this sense, one and the other would come to make the study, analysis and description of all those characteristic features and specific problems of social life that come to be determined by the environment in which each population lives.

They differ, therefore, in the type of population analysed, but they share the research methods and the study elements.

political sociology

Political sociology is called the study of politics from a sociological point of view, that is, according to its relationship with society.

Thus, political sociology has as its objects of study political power, social classes, the structure of society, and the relations that citizens have with the State.

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Sociology of work

Sociology of work is called the branch of sociology that is dedicated to the study, description and analysis of human collectivities that are formed with the aim of working.

In this way, its focus of interest is the social relationships that arise within the work context, as well as its characteristic features and problems.

criminal sociology

Criminal sociology is the branch of sociological study whose object of study is the social phenomenon of criminality. Its purpose is to analyze and interpret the set of sociological factors that intervene in each society for the production of crimes.

In this sense, criminal sociology is a discipline with a guiding vocation for the fight against crime.

industrial sociology

Industrial sociology is responsible for the study and analysis of social phenomena that take place in human communities that experience or have experienced industrialization processes.

Industrialization is a process that has great influence on the configuration and structuring of labor relations that are established within a society, as well as on the conflicts that these generate in a population.

See also: Anthropology.