What is Scientific Knowledge

Scientific knowledge is the ordered, verified and systematized set of knowledge obtained in a methodical and systematic way from the study, observation, experimentation and analysis of phenomena or facts. To do this, it uses a series of rigorous procedures that provide validity, objectivity and universality to the data and the conclusions obtained.

It is achieved through the scientific method, a set of rules and procedures, supported by a scientific community, which allow valid and verifiable conclusions and results to be obtained.

This system of interrelated knowledge is ordered, coherent, precise, objective and universal, and allows us to understand and explain reality and natural phenomena.

Characteristics of scientific knowledge

Critical: It is a type of knowledge that questions reality and examines it rationally, to distinguish between what is true and what is false, what is true and what is debatable.

substantiated: scientific knowledge bases its knowledge on evidence and data obtained through a methodical and rigorous analysis.

Methodical: uses research methods, that is, follows in an orderly manner a series of procedures and techniques that give the study rigor.

verifiable: can be verified through experience, which allows us to verify the statements and the methods used to arrive at them.

Systematic: Scientific knowledge constitutes a system of ordered and interconnected ideas. There are no isolated principles, the relationship between concepts gives rise to new ideas.

unified: its objective is general knowledge, that is, the same scientific statement can be applied to different types of phenomena.

Universal: scientific knowledge is valid anywhere, there is no room for cultural relativity.

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Purpose: the findings have a general value, that is, they must be stated in such a way that other people can verify them.

Communicable: scientific knowledge can be communicated through scientific language, that is, an informative and precise language, which does not generate confusion and from which subjective opinions do not emerge.

Rational: this rational character demands logic and coherence between the scientific affirmations of the same field, which cannot be refuted among themselves.

Provisional: scientific knowledge must be constantly questioned in order for it to continue evolving, today’s finding is provisional because tomorrow it can be refuted by means of another more precise theory.

explanatory and predictive: explains the facts and phenomena of reality and nature through laws that in turn allow future phenomena to be predicted.

See also:

  • Science features.
  • Characteristics of scientific knowledge.

Bases of scientific knowledge

The bases of scientific knowledge are the set of foundations on which it is built and sustained.

The observationthe collection of information through the senses helps us to determine a problem, to pose a question and to formulate a hypothesis, that is, a possible answer to that question.

The experimentationcarry out exercises with different variables that test the hypothesis, to find out if it fulfills a valid and verifiable function.

The demonstration, which consists of analyzing the results to determine if the evidence validates the hypothesis. We must justify the functionality of this knowledge or reformulate the hypothesis.

The criticism, which is the discussion that generates such knowledge in the scientific community. The exchange of opinions and contrasting knowledge bring us closer to the truth.

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The intersubjectivityscientific knowledge must be verifiable and transferable between different subjects so that they have a greater scope.

Objectives of scientific knowledge

Scientific knowledge pursues different objectives depending on its nature and among which we can mention:

  • Understand and explain objectively, rigorously and precisely the reason for things.
  • Discover the relationships between phenomena.
  • Establish the laws and principles to which these phenomena obey.
  • Understand the processes or laws that govern nature.
  • Establish universally valid conclusions.

Examples of scientific knowledge

In this section we will see a series of scientific findings and explanations that have helped to improve life and the perception of the environment.

  • The application of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer, since it was discovered during World War II that toxic gases affected the division of white blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • From the fifteenth century, the observation of the trajectory of the winds contributed to the description of the atmospheric circulation and to the creation, in 1686, of the first meteorological map at the hands of Edmund Halley.
  • The detection of the gravitational waves generated by violent phenomena, such as collisions or mergers that take place in the universe, confirm the predictions of Albert Einstein and his theory of relativity.
  • The production and distribution of electricity from hydroelectric plants thanks to the electromagnetic inductionthat is, the generation of electricity by the effect of a magnetic field on a conductive material.
  • The elaboration of drugs for the treatment of diseases, knowing the protein structure that are altered in said disease.
  • From the medicinal use of willow bark and leaves, due to their properties to reduce pain and fever, the acetylsalicylic acidthe drug commonly known as Aspirin.

Read more about:

  • Science.
  • Scientific method.
  • Scientific investigation.
  • Empirical knowledge.
  • philosophical knowledge.
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