What is the Xylem

xylem is a woody tissue of metaphytic plants formed by the vessels, the parenchyma and the fibers through which the ascending sap circulates. The term xylem is of Greek origin.xylon” what does it mean “wood”.

The main function of the xylem It is to transport water, mineral salts and other nutrients from the roots to the leaves of the plants. Likewise, the secondary function of the xylem is the reserve of minerals and support or support.

The xylem uses 2 forms of energy in order to transport the raw sap from the root to the leaves, firstly it is observed the phenomenon of osmosis it displaces the accumulated water due to the difference in the soluble power of the root tissue and the humidity of the soil upwards and, finally the phenomenon of suction draws the water contained in the vascular tissue to the leaves.

The xylem is formed A primary xylem that encompasses the growing points of stems and roots, secondary xylem located between the xylem and phloem, and new xylem cells can originate inside the roots and outside in almost all stems.

Likewise, the xylem contains conductive elements such as: xylem vessels and tracheids, as its name indicates, it is responsible for transporting, in turn, non-conductive elements such as: axial and radiomedullary parenchyma, and sclerenchymal fibers. The tracheids are elongated cells with thick walls determined in thin areas known as pits, characterized by vessels and fibers, the latter performing the transport function and increasing the mechanical resistance of the xylem.

In 1837 the term was proposed in German as “xylem” by the Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nageli, from German it passed into English and Spanish as xylem, as we know it today.

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xylem and phloem

phloem is a term of Greek origin phloos” which means “bark”. The phloem is a conductive tissue that is responsible for transporting organic and inorganic nutrients, especially sugars.

The elements that make up the phloem are: sieve elements their function is to facilitate transport by apoplast and the parenchyma cells are in charge of the loading and unloading of the sieve elements transporting the sugar to accompanying cells.

The same way, 2 types of phloems are observed: the primary phloem and secondary phloem. The primary phloem is associated with the primary xylem, composing the vascular bundles, and the secondary phloem located on the periphery of the stem and root.