We explain what are input devices, output devices, those that fulfill both functions and what their characteristics are.

input and output devices
Input and output devices allow us to communicate with various systems.

What are the devices?

In computing, it is known as devices or peripherals to the pieces of hardware that are not part of the fundamental core of a system computerized, but rather they connect and interact with it in an auxiliary way, allowing communication (transmission of information) between the motherboard of the system (CPU) and the outside, that is, the user and/or other networked computer systems.

Peripherals can be of very different types, and perform very varied functions, but broadly speaking they can be classified into three fundamental types, according to the flow of information that they allow or promote. These fundamental types are:

  • Input deviceswhich enter information into the system.
  • Output deviceswhich extract information from the system.
  • input and output devicesmixed devices that perform both functions.

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Input devices

input devices
Users use input devices to enter information into the system.

Input devices (e) are those that allow the introduction of external data into the computer system, for further processing by the CPU. This information can come from different parts: from other computerized systems, from a computer backup or from the human being who acts as the user.

Examples of input devices are:

  • Keyboardwhose keys or buttons allow us to give instructions to the system.
  • the mouse or mousewhich communicates the user with the system visually.
  • Touch panels (touchpad)a kind of mousepad that serves as a mouse on laptops and other systems.
  • The cameraswhich capture images and/or movement (video) and introduce it to the system.
  • the scannerswhich allow you to photograph a text or image, or to recognize text for your digital work within the system.
  • code readerssort of scanners specialized in the recognition of encrypted data in QR codes (quickresponse) or in barcodes, for example.
  • the microphoneswhich capture the audio and transfer it to digital format for handling by the system.
  • The joystick or game controllerwhich allows us to communicate with the system in a more agile way, especially when playing.
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Output devices

output devices
Output devices can transmit information in various formats.

The output devices (s) fulfill the opposite role to that of the input devices, that is, allow retrieval of information from the system, addressed to different recipients: the user of the system (who captures it through his senses) or other computerized systems that are connected through a network of any type. Without this type of peripheral, we would never know what happens inside the computer or the system.

The following are examples of this type of device:

  • monitors and screenswhich display information visually, so that we can perceive it through sight.
  • the printers, which reproduce the information visually, but on a physical support. That is to say: written, drawn or illustrated.
  • The video projectors (video beams)which project the information as a visual image onto some suitable background, such as a wall or a backdrop, using beams of light.
  • The speakers or speakerswhich transform digital information into sound impulses, such as music, voices or other sound effects.
  • The headphoneswhich perform the same function as loudspeakers, but are attached directly to the user’s head and ears, so that information can be privately heard.
  • Vibration controlswhich translate system information into rhythmic vibrations, much like a game controller does at specific moments in the game.
  • 3D printerswhich transform the information into a set of mechanical instructions, thanks to which the printer itself builds a physical object using ductile materials that harden when cooled.

input and output devices

input and output device
Touch screens emit and receive information at the same time.

Lastly, the input and output (I/O) peripherals are those that They fulfill both the functions of entering information into the system and extracting data of it, either simultaneously or in turns.

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Examples of these devices are:

  • touch screens, which display system information and allow the user to directly enter new data, without the need for keyboards or other peripherals. To do this, the user can use their own fingers, or some type of specialized pen or optical instrument.
  • multifunctional printerssort of a cross between a scanner, printer and photocopier, which allows the user to perform input (scan) or output (print) functions in turns.
  • virtual reality equipmentgenerally made up of helmets and gloves, which not only project the information from the system directly to the user’s eyes and ears, but also feed him back with the information generated by moving his head, speaking into the microphone or moving his hands and fingers .
  • network devices, which transform information into radio waves or other physical impulses that can be transmitted throughout space, or through conducting cables, until finding another system capable of recognizing and interpreting them to decipher the information. Generally both systems send and receive signals of some kind simultaneously or in turn, as occurs over the Internet.
  • Fixed and removable storage devicesthat is, units for reading and writing data on magnetic tapes, which can be fixed and continuously connected to the system (such as the hard disk or hard drive) or connected to the system temporarily, through USB ports (such as drives flash). Information can be entered and stored in these peripherals for later reading and recovery. In the past, disk drives were also used, which required the introduction of a floppy disk (diskette) or compact disc (CD either blue ray), but such technologies are today mostly obsolete.
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References:

  • “Peripheral (computing)” on Wikipedia.
  • “Input/output peripheral” on Wikipedia.
  • “Input and output devices” in Easy Technology.
  • “Input and output devices” (video) in AR.

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