Industrialization

what is industrialization

Industrialization refers to production of goods in large proportions and also refers to process by which a society or state changes from an agricultural economy to an industrialized economy.

Industrialization is generated in a specific sector and is based on the development of machinery, techniques and work processes in order to produce more in less time, as well as economic growth that seeks to maximize the benefits and results of the Internal Product. Gross (GDP).

Thanks to industrialization, a new social, economic, political, cultural and geographical order.

Agricultural work was systematized with the development of new machinery, the inhabitants of the countryside emigrated to the new and large cities in search of employment opportunities, better wages, a new home, better quality of life, the nuclear family was standardized and not large , among others.

The Industrial Revolution was the first step towards industrialization, this process began in the mid-eighteenth century and early nineteenth, when the first changes in the mechanization of work processes, incorporation of machinery, mass production and the use of coal as a source of energy.

Therefore, industrialization made it possible to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing many products, increase the volume of production on a large scale, make better use of human capital, expand markets and sales percentages.

The main activities to industrialize were textile, automotive, pharmaceutical and metallurgical.

However, this fact did not occur equally in all countries, the first to industrialize were England, France and Germany, later other countries joined, including the United States, Japan and Russia, and more recently several African countries, Latin America and Asia.

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These industrial processes completely changed the economy, development, productivity, automation and consumption of goods in the countries.

Characteristics of industrialization

Among the main characteristics of industrialization, the following can be highlighted:

  • New social and family order.
  • Expansion and growth of new cities.
  • Growth of the upper and middle social classes, and origin of the proletariat.
  • Renewal of production processes through the mechanization of manufacturing.
  • Technological development.
  • Mass production began on a large scale that requires an increase in sales and a reduction in costs.
  • A new order and economic and commercial system originated.
  • Working hours have been adjusted.
  • The way of thinking and doing business negotiations was transformed.
  • The chemical industry developed.
  • Industrialization is part of the modernization process.
  • It went from a primary economy, that is, rural and extractive, to a secondary economy of transformation that developed the tertiary economy of commercialization.
  • Increased levels of environmental pollution and decreased levels of natural resources.

See also Industry.

Industrialization in Mexico

Industrialization in Mexico has been generated progressively throughout its history. It is said that it began approximately in 1880, at which time the economy began to grow thanks to the construction of railways, the telegram and telephone networks, as well as the important and large agricultural production that was developed.

In addition, it should be mentioned that mining was also carried out in Mexico, opportunities that foreigners took advantage of to invest considering that labor was cheap and it was a country that already had terrestrial communication networks.

Later, with the discovery of oil deposits, Mexico saw even greater growth in its industry and economy. However, the greatest boom in industrialization in Mexico occurred after World War II.

In this way, the Mexican economy, industry and commerce grew until it became an important industrialized country in Latin America.

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industrialization and imperialism

At the end of the 19th century, imperialism arose consisted of a new regime of political and economic order and domination of expansion by industrialized countries and, which in turn was used to dominate developing countries whose economies were weak and dependent.

Imperialism had the need to dominate the less developed countries and where there were important sources of resources for industrial advance.

Consequently, industrial capital, which is an important characteristic of imperialism, was strengthened.

See also Imperialism.

Import substitution industrialization model

It is a model of industrialization that seeks encourage the growth and development of various local industriesimplementing a set of economic political mechanisms that promote their development and protection.

Through this model, it is expected to expand the national production of a country, generate jobs, consumption of national products and satisfy the needs of the consumer. For example, the textile industry has been promoted in several countries thanks to these industrialization models.