Scientific Method

What is the scientific method

As a scientific method it is called the set of rules by which we must abide in order to produce knowledge with rigor and scientific validity.

As such, it is a structured and systematic way of approaching research in the field of science.

In this sense, it uses observation, experimentation, the demonstration of hypotheses and logical reasoning to verify the results obtained and expand the knowledge that, in this matter, was had. Their findings can give rise to laws and theories.

Simply put, the scientific method is a research tool whose objective is to resolve the questions formulated through systematic work and, in this sense, verify the truth or falsity of a thesis.

Hence, a scientific article is the result of a study carried out and verified through the scientific method.

The scientific method, to be considered as such, must have two features: must be able to be reproducible by anyone, anywhere; and it should be able to be refutablesince every scientific proposition must be capable of being objected to.

Steps of the scientific method

The scientific method consists of a series of basic steps that must be followed with great rigor to guarantee the validity of its result.

Observation

It is the initial phase. It includes the investigation, collection, analysis and organization of data related to the topic that interests us.

Proposition

It is the starting point of our work. It raises the doubt that we intend to clear up.

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Hypothesis

It is the approach of the possible solution to the problem or matter that we are going to deal with. In this sense, it is based on an assumption that marks the work plan that we will draw up, since we will try to demonstrate its validity or falsehood.

Verification and experimentation

In this step, we will try to prove our hypothesis through experiments subject to the scientific rigor of our research.

Demonstration

It is the part where we analyze whether we have managed to prove our hypothesis based on the data obtained.

conclusions

Is the final stage. Here we indicate the causes of the results of our research, and reflect on the scientific knowledge that it generated.

See also: Scientific investigation, Science and Empirical method.

Example of the scientific method

Below is an example of how the scientific method can be applied to answer a question or find a solution.

  1. Observation: It is observed that the leaves of the trees and plants are green.
  2. Proposition: why are the leaves of trees and plants green?
  3. Hypothesis: There are two hypotheses. 1) Trees and plants have green leaves because they have the pigment chlorophyll which is responsible for photosynthesis. 2) The leaves of trees and plants are green because they carry out the process through which they produce food.
  4. Verification and experimentation: Next, an easy and short experiment is carried out. Two or three green leaves of a tree or plant are taken as a sample, placed in a container with alcohol and put on the fire until it boils.
  5. Demonstration: when boiling you can see that the alcohol changes color and turns green. This happens because the leaves have the pigment called chlorophyll through which photosynthesis develops.
  6. conclusions: it is concluded that both hypotheses are valid after the demonstration. The leaves of trees and plants are green because they have chlorophyll, a very important pigment in nature and responsible for photosynthesis.
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See also:

  • Experiment
  • Empirical
  • scientific knowledge
  • Method