Types of Feminism

How many types of feminism are there?

Feminism or feminist movement is known for promoting equal rights between the sexes. Feminism today has a great diversity of thought trends or focuses of interest, but the movement perceives itself as one. We are going to learn about 18 types of feminism that, in reality, emphasize different aspects within the same movement.

1. Philosophical feminism

types of feminism

Simone deBeauvoir

Philosophical feminism is one whose purpose is to reflect on the idea, concept and function of women within the social order. It also proposes the review of the history of philosophy, from where the trace of women was erased. It has served as a foundation and justification for the different feminist movements.

Throughout history, figures such as Mary Wollstonecraft (precursor), Flora Tristán, John Stuart Mill, Simone de Beauvoir, Clara Campoamor, María Laffitte and, currently, Celia Amorós and Amelia Valcárcel, among others, have stood out in philosophical feminism. others.

2. Radical feminism

Radical feminism, also known as radfem, is a movement that emerged around the 1960s. Contrary to popular belief, it is quite far from extremism. It takes the name of radical from the word “root”, since it intends to investigate the roots of the oppression of women. For this type of feminism, oppression “roots” in the sociopolitical and economic order, from which practices of discrimination such as racism and classism also derive.

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3. Abolitionist feminism

types of feminism

Symbol of the feminist movement in general.

Abolitionist feminism deals with fighting against the commercial and sexual exploitation of the female body and all forms of trafficking in women. Among its main objectives is the abolition of prostitution, from which its name derives. But it is not limited to that. It is also opposed to gestational surrogacy (surrogate motherhood or surrogate motherhood) and pornography.

4. Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism is one that seeks to promote the recognition and acceptance of women’s abilities in activities and jobs that have historically been associated with men. It deals with promoting inclusion laws that can favor equal opportunities.

5. Feminism of equality

types of feminism

Gender equality symbol

Equality feminism is committed to an activist agenda, and seeks to promote social practices of equality between men and women, on the understanding that gender differences are strictly cultural. This supposes the intention of consolidating a new social order based on democratic and egalitarian values.

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6. Feminism of difference

The feminism of difference is based on psychoanalysis and the concept of otherness. It considers the woman as an absolutely other being, that is, as a specificity not equal to the man. Assumes the exploration of the unconscious as a mechanism for the construction of female identity.

7. Factual or scientific feminism

This type of feminism is based on evolutionary biology and psychology. He opposes the idea that the only differences between men and women are cultural, since he recognizes biological differences. However, it points out that such differences do not justify gender inequality and that, therefore, it is necessary to build a truly inclusive society in terms of rights.

8. Marxist feminism

In socialist feminism, reflection on the ways of building power in society based on Marxist theory is fundamental. It emphasizes the material realities and economic conditions that can act as perpetuators of oppression. Marxist feminism takes into account the specific way in which it influences capitalism as the dominant system in the hegemony of patriarchy.

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9. Post-colonial feminism

types of feminism

Postcolonial feminism is one that studies and reflects on the condition of women in postcolonial geopolitical settings, where relationships of dependency with the former dominant metropolis have played a role in social construction. It shows the adoption of thought patterns of the colonizer, of which the population is usually unaware. Among them, racism, classism and machismo.

10. Anarchofeminism or anarchist feminism

Anarcho-feminism is a political philosophy of the struggle for gender equality that takes as reference the postulates of anarchist ideology. From her point of view, anarchism is favorable to feminism whenever it questions or opposes the different modes of social control, of which patriarchy is an expression.

11. Black Feminism

types of feminism

black feminism poster

Black feminism takes into account the particular situation of racial minorities, whose discrimination and social marginalization aggravate the subordinate condition of Afro-descendant women in the context of various societies. This feminism understands that racism, in addition to patriarchy, has an influence on the ordering of power and gender roles.

12. Lesbian feminism

types of feminism

Lesbian feminism reviews the naturalization of sexual normativity, specifically heterosexuality. Understands that the naturalization of heterosexuality favors the concept of social roles according to gender. For example, that women should take care of household chores while men should be providers. Lesbian feminism applies the term heteronormative principles to this traditional conception of social gender roles.

13. Cultural Feminism

It encompasses different trends that propose the development of women within the framework of a counterculture of the feminine. He considers women morally superior to men, and sees in her a link with her special nature due to her condition as a mother.

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NOTE: We must clarify that, however, before this meaning, the expression cultural feminism referred to depoliticized feminism.

14. Separatist Feminism

Separatist feminism bases part of its reflections on the theories of lesbian feminism. However, it is distinguished in that it proposes the separation of men and women as the only way for women to reach their potential. Within separatist feminism there are two tendencies: general separatism and lesbian separatism.

15. Cyberfeminism

types of feminism

Cyberfeminism studies the way in which notions of gender are constructed in social networks and cyberspace in general, whose conditions and practices allow the traditional conception of gender roles to be circumvented.

16. Ecofeminism

Ecofeminism relates feminism to the study and protection of the environment. It identifies an analogy between the indiscriminate exploitation of the ecosystem by capitalism, and the exploitation of the female body in the patriarchal order, in such a way that it considers capitalism and patriarchy expression of the same phenomenon. In this sense, he understands that the matriarchal model is presented as a horizontal alternative.

17. Dissident Feminism

Dissident feminism groups women who distance themselves from some goals or methods of other feminisms. It is not unified. Some sectors relativize the weight of patriarchy in female oppression, others question the need to modify the civil code.

18. Pro-Life Feminism

Pro-life feminism speaks out against abortion while endorsing the rest of the feminist agenda. Pro-life feminism argues that the principle of equality must pass through respect for the life of the most vulnerable, which includes the unborn. Likewise, it questions the supposed advantages or convenience of abortion for women.

However, this current of feminism is not recognized by the feminist movement as a whole, since for it, the obligation to sustain a pregnancy against the will of the woman reproduces the structure of patriarchal thought.